Tape-in Extensions: Hair Extensions Guide

Tape-in extensions have become increasingly popular in recent years as a go-to solution for individuals seeking longer and fuller hair. These extensions offer a convenient and non-permanent method to enhance one’s natural hair, providing instant volume and length without the need for complicated installation processes or extensive maintenance routines. For instance, let us consider the case of Sarah, a young professional who has always dreamed of having luscious, flowing locks. Despite her diligent efforts to grow out her hair naturally, she found herself frustrated with the slow progress. In search of an immediate transformation, Sarah decided to explore tape-in extensions as a viable option.

The purpose of this article is to provide readers with comprehensive information about tape-in extensions – from understanding what they are and how they work, to exploring their benefits and potential drawbacks. This guide aims to equip individuals with the knowledge necessary to make informed decisions when considering tape-in extensions as part of their beauty routine. By delving into topics such as application techniques, recommended care practices, and suitable styling options, readers will gain valuable insights on how to seamlessly incorporate these extensions into their daily lives while maintaining healthy and natural-looking hair.

Choosing the right color and length

Tape-in Extensions: Hair Extensions Guide

Choosing the right color and length

When it comes to tape-in extensions, one of the key considerations is choosing the right color and length that seamlessly blend with your natural hair. To illustrate this point, let’s consider a hypothetical scenario where Sarah, a young professional, wants to add volume and length to her fine shoulder-length hair for an upcoming special event.

To begin the process of selecting the perfect tape-in extensions, there are several factors to keep in mind. First and foremost, matching the color of the extensions to your natural hair is crucial for achieving a seamless look. It is advisable to compare multiple swatches against your own hair under different lighting conditions to find the closest match possible.

In addition to color, determining the appropriate length of tape-in extensions requires careful consideration. Understanding your desired outcome will help you choose between longer or shorter options. If you’re looking for added volume without significant length increase, opting for extensions that closely resemble your current hair length may be ideal. On the other hand, if you desire dramatic transformations with both increased volume and length, longer tape-in extensions would suit your needs better.

To assist you further in making informed decisions about color and length selection, here are some key points summarized in a bullet list:

  • Consider consulting a professional hairstylist who can offer expert advice on finding the most suitable shade and extension length.
  • Keep in mind that certain colors might require additional blending techniques such as balayage or highlights for a more natural appearance.
  • Take into account any future plans you may have regarding hairstyles or potential coloring treatments when deciding on extension lengths.
  • Remember that personal preferences play a role; while some individuals prefer subtle enhancements, others opt for bolder transformations.

Moreover, below is a table providing an overview of how different Extension Lengths can achieve varying results:

Extension Length Result
Shoulder-length Added volume
Mid-back Subtle length
Waist-length Dramatic
Below waist Show-stopping

By considering these factors and utilizing the information provided, you can make an informed decision when choosing the color and length of your tape-in extensions. With a seamless blend between your natural hair and the extensions, you’ll be ready to move onto the next step: preparing your natural hair for application.

Preparing your natural hair

Transitioning from the previous section on choosing the right color and length, it is important to prepare your natural hair before applying tape-in extensions. Let’s take a look at how you can ensure that your hair is in the best condition for this process.

Imagine you have decided to add tape-in extensions to your shoulder-length hair. Before getting started, it is crucial to wash and thoroughly dry your hair. By doing so, you are removing any dirt or excess oils that may interfere with the adhesive used to attach the extensions. Additionally, clean hair provides a better surface for the tapes to stick onto, ensuring longer-lasting results.

Once your hair is clean and dry, gently comb through it to remove any tangles or knots. This step helps create an even base for attaching the extensions and prevents unnecessary pulling or breakage during installation. Remember to be gentle when detangling as excessive force can cause damage to both your natural hair and the extensions themselves.

To further protect your natural hair, consider using heat protection products before styling with hot tools such as straighteners or curling irons. Heat can weaken the bonds of tape-in extensions over time, leading to potential slippage or premature removal. Applying a heat protectant spray will help minimize damage caused by high temperatures while allowing you to style your extended locks effortlessly.

In order to visually illustrate these preparatory steps, let’s explore some key reminders in bullet point format:

  • Wash and thoroughly dry your natural hair prior to installation.
  • Gently comb through any tangles or knots before attaching the extensions.
  • Use heat protection products when styling with hot tools.
  • Be mindful of not using excessive force while detangling or handling your new hairstyle.

Moreover, here’s a useful table summarizing additional Tips for Preparing Your Natural Hair:

Tips for Preparing Your Natural Hair

With these preparations in mind, you are now one step closer to achieving the desired look with tape-in extensions. In the following section, we will delve into the process of applying the adhesive, which is a crucial element for securing the extensions onto your natural hair seamlessly.

Now that you have prepared your natural hair, let’s move on to understanding how to apply the adhesive for attaching tape-in extensions effectively.

Applying the adhesive

Transitioning from the previous section where we discussed the basics of tape-in hair extensions, let’s now delve into the crucial step of Preparing your natural hair before applying these extensions. To provide a clear understanding, let’s consider an example:

Imagine Sarah, who has fine and shoulder-length hair, wants to add volume and length to her hairstyle using tape-in extensions. Before she can enjoy the benefits of these extensions, it is essential for her to properly prepare her natural hair.

To ensure optimal results when installing tape-in extensions, there are several preparatory steps you should follow:

  1. Cleanse and condition your hair thoroughly: Begin by washing your hair with a gentle shampoo to remove any buildup or residue. Follow up with a nourishing conditioner to keep your strands hydrated and manageable.

  2. Avoid excessive heat styling: Prioritize minimizing heat exposure on your natural hair in order to protect its health. Heat damage can weaken the integrity of your strands and make them more prone to breakage once the extensions are applied.

  3. Trim split ends: Regular trims are vital to maintain healthy-looking hair while wearing tape-in extensions. By removing split ends, you prevent further damage from traveling up the shafts of your hair.

  4. Optimize moisture levels: Properly moisturized hair creates a favorable environment for tape-in extension application. Utilize leave-in conditioners or hydrating masks that suit your specific hair type to achieve optimum moisture balance.

Preparing Your Natural Hair for Tape-In Extensions
1.The importance of cleansing and conditioning
– Gentle shampooing
– Nourishing conditioner
2.Minimizing heat styling
– Protecting against heat damage
3.Trimming split ends
– Maintaining healthy-looking hair
4.Optimizing moisture levels
– Leave-in conditioners
– Hydrating masks

By carefully following these preparatory steps, you can ensure that your natural hair is in the best possible condition to support tape-in extensions. With a solid foundation, the application process will be smoother and the end result more satisfying.

Transitioning seamlessly into the next section on “Applying the Adhesive,” let’s proceed with securing the extensions in place.

Securing the extensions

Section H2: Securing the Extensions

After applying the adhesive, it is essential to secure the tape-in extensions properly. This step ensures that the extensions blend seamlessly with your natural hair and stay in place for an extended period. Let’s take a closer look at how to achieve a secure hold for your tape-in extensions.

Imagine you have just applied tape-in extensions to your client’s hair, and now you need to ensure they are securely attached. One effective way of achieving this is by using a flat iron on low heat settings over each taped section. By doing so, you activate the adhesive, allowing it to bond firmly with both the extension weft and the natural hair strand. Applying gentle pressure as you run the flat iron along each taped section helps create a strong connection between the two.

To maintain long-lasting results, here are some key tips for securing tape-in extensions:

  • Avoid excessive pulling or tugging on the extensions when brushing or styling.
  • Use high-quality products specifically designed for hair extensions maintenance.
  • Refrain from washing your hair immediately after application; wait at least 48 hours before shampooing.
  • Schedule regular maintenance appointments with a professional stylist who specializes in tape-in extensions.

By following these guidelines, you can ensure that your tape-in extensions remain securely attached while preserving their overall appearance and longevity.

Table: Common Mistakes When Securing Tape-In Extensions

Mistake Consequence Solution
Applying too much tension May cause discomfort and damage to natural hair Apply moderate pressure during attachment
Ignoring proper care instructions Can lead to premature slipping or loosening of extensions Follow recommended maintenance routine
Using unsuitable styling products Could result in sticky residue buildup Opt for extension-friendly products
Neglecting regular salon visits Increases risk of improper maintenance and potential issues Schedule routine appointments with a professional stylist

In summary, securing tape-in extensions is crucial to ensure their longevity and natural appearance. By using a flat iron to activate the adhesive and following essential care tips, you can maintain a secure hold for your extensions. Avoiding common mistakes during the application process will further contribute to achieving optimal results.

With the tape-in extensions securely attached, it’s time to focus on trimming and styling them to blend seamlessly with your natural hair.

Trimming and styling the extensions

To ensure that tape-in hair extensions stay securely in place, it is crucial to follow proper installation techniques. Let’s take a look at an example scenario to understand the process better. Imagine Sarah, who has fine and thin hair, wants to add volume and length using tape-in extensions. After carefully selecting the shade that matches her natural hair color, she visits a professional stylist for the installation.

Firstly, the stylist parts Sarah’s hair horizontally, starting from the nape of her neck. Using small clips, they secure the top section of her hair away to work with the bottom layer. Next, they apply a thin strip of double-sided adhesive tape onto one side of each extension weft. The stylist then aligns these extension wefts with Sarah’s roots on either side of each parting, ensuring they are evenly spaced apart.

Once properly positioned, the stylist presses down firmly on each extension weft to adhere them securely to Sarah’s natural hair. They repeat this process until all desired sections have been covered with extensions. To provide extra stability and prevent slippage, some stylists may also use a heated tool or clamp gently over each attachment point after application.

To summarize, securing tape-in extensions involves precise placement and firm adhesion using double-sided adhesive tape. Now let’s explore how trimming and styling these extensions can further enhance their seamless integration into your natural hair.

Trimming and styling the extensions

After successfully installing tape-in extensions, it is essential to trim and style them accordingly for a flawless blend with your own locks. Here are some key considerations:

  • Trimming: Depending on your desired look and hairstyle, you may need to trim the extensions’ length slightly. This step ensures that both your natural hair and the added extensions seamlessly merge together without any noticeable difference.
  • Layering: Layering helps create dimension and movement within your hairstyle while blending in the extensions effortlessly. Ask your stylist to assess the layers in your hair and adjust the extensions accordingly for a more natural appearance.
  • Heat styling: Tape-in extensions can be heat styled just like your natural hair, allowing you to achieve various hairstyles effortlessly. However, it is crucial to use heat protectant products and avoid excessive heat exposure to maintain their longevity.
  • Color blending: If there are slight color variations between your natural hair and the extensions, consider getting them professionally blended or toned. This process ensures a harmonious transition between shades, enhancing the overall look.

By following these trimming and styling techniques, you can customize tape-in extensions to complement your unique hairstyle preferences seamlessly. Understanding how to properly care for and maintain these extensions will further contribute to their longevity and overall satisfaction. Now let’s delve into an important aspect of wearing tape-in extensions: understanding the removal process while safeguarding your natural hair health.

Understanding the removal process

After getting your tape-in hair extensions trimmed to match your desired length, it’s time to move on to styling them. Whether you prefer sleek straight locks or bouncy curls, proper styling techniques can help you achieve a seamless blend between your natural hair and the extensions.

For instance, let’s consider a hypothetical scenario where Emma has recently added tape-in extensions to her shoulder-length hair. She wants to style her new longer locks for an upcoming special event. Here are some key points to keep in mind when trimming and styling tape-in extensions:

  1. Use heat protectant: Before using any heated styling tools such as flat irons or curling wands, always apply a heat protectant spray on both your natural hair and the extensions. This will minimize damage caused by excessive heat exposure.

  2. Avoid applying products directly onto the tapes: When using hairspray or other styling products, make sure to avoid spraying them directly onto the adhesive tapes of the extensions. Doing so could weaken their bond with your natural hair and cause them to slip out prematurely.

  3. Experiment with different hairstyles: Tape-in extensions offer versatility when it comes to hairstyling. Try various updos, ponytails, braids, or half-up styles to showcase the full potential of your longer tresses.

  4. Seek professional assistance: If you’re unsure about how to trim or style your tape-in extensions properly, don’t hesitate to consult a professional stylist who specializes in working with extensions. They can provide expert guidance tailored specifically to your hair type and desired look.

Style Pros Cons
Sleek Straight – Provides a polished – Can require frequent
appearance touch-ups
– Offers a classic
—————— —————————- ——————————-
Bouncy Curls – Adds volume and – May require more
dimension to the hair maintenance for
longer-lasting curls
– Creates a playful
and youthful look

Overall, trimming and styling tape-in extensions can be an exciting process that allows you to enhance your natural hair while experimenting with different looks. By following these tips and seeking professional assistance when needed, you’ll be able to achieve stunning results.

But before that, let’s explore how to take proper care of your extensions to maintain their longevity and ensure they continue looking fabulous.

Taking proper care of your extensions

Understanding the removal process of tape-in extensions is crucial to ensure a safe and efficient transition. Let’s explore the steps involved in removing these extensions, so you can have a better understanding of what to expect.

Firstly, it is important to note that tape-in extensions should always be removed by a professional hairstylist who has experience with this specific method. Attempting to remove them yourself can lead to damage or breakage of your natural hair. The removal process typically involves applying a solution that breaks down the adhesive used to attach the extensions. This solution allows for easy detachment without causing any harm to your own hair.

An example scenario would be Sarah, who had been wearing tape-in extensions for six months. She made an appointment with her trusted stylist to have them safely removed. During the removal process, the stylist carefully applied the adhesive remover and gently loosened each extension from Sarah’s hair. Once all the extensions were detached, they thoroughly cleansed Sarah’s scalp and natural hair to eliminate any residue from the adhesive remover.

To give you a clearer idea of what this process entails, here are some key points:

  • The hairstylist will start by sectioning off your hair.
  • They will then apply an adhesive remover specifically designed for tape-in extensions.
  • After allowing sufficient time for the solution to work its magic, they will use their fingers or specialized tools to gently separate each extension from your natural hair.
  • Finally, they will cleanse both your scalp and natural hair using a clarifying shampoo followed by conditioning treatments.

This table illustrates how proper removal techniques benefit not only your natural hair but also promote overall scalp health:

Benefits of Professional Removal
Minimizes risk of damage
Promotes healthy re-growth
Prevents tangling
Maintains scalp hygiene

In summary, understanding the tape-in extension removal process is essential for ensuring safe and effective transition. By entrusting a professional hairstylist with this task, you can be confident that your natural hair and scalp will remain healthy throughout the process.

Transitioning into the subsequent section about “Keeping your scalp and hair clean,” it is crucial to maintain proper hygiene in order to preserve the longevity and appearance of your tape-in extensions.

Keeping your scalp and hair clean

Tape-in Extensions: Hair Extensions Guide

Section H2: Taking proper care of your extensions
Section H3: Keeping your scalp and hair clean

Maintaining the cleanliness of both your scalp and hair is crucial for ensuring the longevity of tape-in hair extensions. By keeping a consistent cleaning routine, you can prevent product buildup and maintain a healthy environment for your natural hair to thrive alongside the extensions.

To better understand the importance of maintaining a clean scalp and hair, let’s consider a hypothetical case study. Imagine Sarah, who recently got tape-in extensions installed. She neglected regular cleansing routines due to her busy schedule. As time went on, Sarah noticed that her scalp became itchy and irritated, affecting not only her comfort but also the overall appearance of her extensions.

Paragraph 1:
Regular washing is essential in preventing oil and product buildup around the attachment points of tape-in extensions. To effectively cleanse your scalp and hair without compromising the integrity of the extensions, follow these key steps:

  • Start by wetting your hair thoroughly.
  • Apply a sulfate-free shampoo directly to your roots, gently massaging it into your scalp using circular motions.
  • Rinse out all traces of shampoo before applying conditioner from mid-lengths to ends.
  • Use a wide-toothed comb or detangling brush to evenly distribute conditioner throughout your hair.
  • Thoroughly rinse out the conditioner while avoiding excessive manipulation near the extension bonds.

Bullet point list (evoking emotional response):

Taking good care of your scalp and hair through regular cleansing brings numerous benefits:

  • Promotes healthier-looking locks
  • Reduces itchiness and discomfort
  • Prevents potential damage caused by debris accumulation
  • Enhances overall aesthetic appeal

Paragraph 2:
In addition to following an effective cleansing routine, there are other practices you should incorporate into your daily regimen to maintain optimal cleanliness. These include:

  1. Avoiding heavy styling products that may lead to product buildup.
  2. Brushing your hair gently and avoiding excessive tugging or pulling near the extensions.
  3. Sleeping with a silk or satin pillowcase to minimize friction and prevent tangling.

Table (evoking emotional response):

Practice Benefit
Avoiding heavy styling products Prevents greasy appearance
Gentle brushing technique Reduces potential damage to extensions and natural hair
Silk/satin pillowcase Minimizes frizz and breakage

Paragraph 3:
By incorporating these scalp and hair hygiene practices into your routine, you can ensure that your Tape-In Extensions remain in optimal condition throughout their lifespan.

Maintaining proper cleanliness is just one part of caring for your tape-in extensions. Equally important is protecting them from excessive heat and harsh chemicals, which we will explore in the upcoming section.

Avoiding excessive heat and chemicals

Proper hygiene is crucial when it comes to maintaining tape-in extensions. Now, let’s delve into another important aspect of caring for these extensions—avoiding excessive heat and chemicals. By following these guidelines, you can ensure the longevity and health of both your natural hair and the extensions.

Avoiding Excessive Heat and Chemicals:

To illustrate the importance of protecting your tape-in extensions from excessive heat, consider the case of Sarah. A few weeks after getting her tape-in extensions installed, she regularly used a flat iron set on high heat without any thermal protection spray. As a result, not only did her natural hair suffer from severe breakage, but the adhesive bonds on her tape-ins weakened as well.

Here are some key points to keep in mind regarding heat and chemical usage with tape-in extensions:

  1. Moderate Heat Styling: Excessive use of hot styling tools such as curling irons or straighteners can weaken the adhesive bonds holding the extensions in place. Limit their use to avoid damaging both your natural hair and the taped sections.

  2. Thermal Protection: Always apply a good quality thermal protection spray before using any heat styling tools. This helps create a barrier between the heated tool and your hair, reducing damage caused by direct contact.

  3. Chemical Treatments: Be cautious when applying chemical treatments near the bonded areas of your tape-in extensions. Harsh chemicals found in certain dyes, relaxers, or perming solutions may compromise the integrity of the adhesive bond.

  4. Swimming Precautions: Chlorine present in swimming pools can affect both your natural hair color and cause premature fading or loosening of tape-ins’ adhesive bonds. Protect your extensions by wearing a swim cap or thoroughly rinsing them immediately after swimming.

Table: Common Chemicals to Avoid with Tape-in Extensions

Chemicals Effects on Extensions
Bleach May weaken adhesive bonds
Ammonia-based dyes Can cause discoloration or damage
Relaxers May affect the integrity of the bonds
Peroxide Can lead to premature bond deterioration

By following these guidelines, you can maintain the quality and lifespan of your tape-in extensions while preserving your natural hair. Remember that a little extra care goes a long way in ensuring beautiful and healthy-looking locks.

Transition into subsequent section about “Blending the extensions with your natural hair”:
Now that we have covered how to protect your tape-in extensions from heat and chemicals, let’s move on to an equally important aspect—blending the extensions seamlessly with your natural hair.

Blending the extensions with your natural hair

Building on the importance of avoiding excessive heat and chemicals, it is equally crucial to ensure that tape-in extensions seamlessly blend with your natural hair. Achieving a flawless integration between your natural locks and the extensions not only enhances their overall appearance but also provides a comfortable experience. Let’s delve into some key considerations for blending tape-in extensions with your own hair.

Blending Tape-In Extensions with Your Natural Hair

To begin, let’s consider an example. Imagine you have naturally straight hair and opt for tape-in extensions with a slight wave pattern. While this may seem like a small difference, ensuring that the texture matches or complements your natural hair can make a significant impact on the final result. By selecting extensions that closely resemble your existing hair texture, you can achieve a seamless blend that appears effortlessly natural.

To further enhance the blending process, here are some essential tips to keep in mind:

  • Color match: Matching the color of the extensions to your natural hair shade is vital for achieving an undetectable look.
  • Cut and style: Trimming and styling both your natural hair and the extensions together can help create cohesion between the two, resulting in a harmonious blend.
  • Layering technique: Utilizing layering techniques while installing tape-in extensions ensures they integrate smoothly with your own strands.
  • Maintenance routine: Following a proper maintenance routine will help preserve the condition of both your natural hair and the extensions, allowing them to continue blending seamlessly over time.

Here are four reasons why achieving a flawless blend is important:

  • Boosts confidence by providing a cohesive appearance
  • Enhances comfort through effortless wearability
  • Eliminates self-consciousness about visible extension lines
  • Allows for versatile hairstyling options without limitations

Emotional Table:

Benefits of Blending Tape-In Extensions
Increased self-esteem
Enhanced versatility
Improved confidence
Reduced worries about visibility

In summary, blending tape-in extensions with your natural hair is a crucial step in achieving a seamless and natural-looking result. By considering factors such as texture, color matching, styling techniques, and maintenance routines, you can ensure that the extensions integrate seamlessly with your own locks. Now let’s explore another important aspect to consider: the Longevity of Tape-In Extensions.

Considering the longevity of tape-in extensions, it is essential to understand how they fare over time and what measures can be taken to prolong their lifespan effectively.

Considering the longevity of tape-in extensions

Blending the extensions with your natural hair is a crucial step in achieving a flawless and seamless look. By carefully selecting the right shade, texture, and length of tape-in extensions, you can seamlessly integrate them with your own hair for a stunning result. Let’s delve further into this process.

To illustrate, imagine Sarah, who has short bob-length hair but dreams of having long, voluminous locks. She decides to try tape-in extensions to achieve her desired look. After consulting with a professional stylist, she selects extensions that perfectly match her hair color and texture. The stylist skillfully applies the extensions near the roots of Sarah’s hairline and blends them seamlessly from top to bottom. As a result, Sarah achieves a striking transformation where it becomes nearly impossible to distinguish between her real hair and the added extensions.

When blending tape-in extensions with your natural hair, consider these key factors:

  • Texture: Ensure that the texture of the extension matches your own hair so that they blend harmoniously.
  • Length: Choose an appropriate length that complements your existing hairstyle without looking disproportionate or unnatural.
  • Color match: Find extensions that accurately match your natural hair color or opt for highlights or lowlights for an enhanced dimension.
  • Placement technique: Trust an experienced stylist who understands how to strategically apply the extensions for optimal blending and seamless integration.

By keeping these considerations in mind when blending tape-in extensions with your natural hair, you’ll be able to create an effortlessly cohesive style that enhances both volume and length.

Now let’s explore another essential aspect of tape-in extensions: considering their longevity. Understanding how long you can expect your tape-in extensions to last will help you make informed decisions regarding maintenance routines as well as budgeting accordingly.

Evaluating the cost and budgeting accordingly

Considering the longevity of tape-in extensions, it is important to understand how long these hair extensions typically last and what factors can affect their durability. Let’s explore this aspect further.

One example of a case study involving tape-in extensions longevity is Sarah, who had her extensions professionally installed. After proper care and maintenance, Sarah’s tape-in extensions lasted for approximately eight weeks before needing to be repositioned by a hairstylist. This highlights that with regular upkeep and professional touch-ups, tape-in extensions can provide several weeks of wear.

To ensure the longevity of your tape-in extensions, there are several key considerations:

  1. Proper installation: It is crucial to have your tape-in extensions applied by an experienced stylist who follows correct application techniques. A skilled professional will ensure that the adhesive bonds securely without causing damage to your natural hair.

  2. Regular maintenance: To maintain the integrity of your tape-in extensions, it is essential to follow a consistent care routine. This includes using sulfate-free shampoos and conditioners, avoiding excessive heat styling or chemical treatments near the tapes, and gently brushing through any tangles or knots.

  3. Avoiding excessive tension: Be mindful of hairstyles or activities that could put unnecessary strain on the extension bonds. Pulling or tugging at the tapes can weaken them over time and lead to premature detachment.

  4. Professional removal: When it comes time to remove your tape-in extensions, seek assistance from a professional hairstylist who knows how to safely detach them without causing harm to your natural hair.

To summarize:

Points Tape-In Extensions Longevity
1 Proper installation
2 Regular maintenance
3 Avoiding excessive tension
4 Professional removal

By following these guidelines and considering these factors, you can help maximize the lifespan of your tape-in extensions while keeping your natural hair healthy and protected. Remember, prioritizing proper care and maintenance is key to achieving long-lasting results.

In light of these considerations, it becomes evident that understanding the longevity of tape-in extensions and implementing appropriate measures can contribute significantly to your overall satisfaction with this type of hair extension method. By ensuring professional installation, regular upkeep, and mindful handling, you can enjoy the benefits of tape-in extensions for an extended period while maintaining the health and integrity of your natural hair.

Comments are closed.